A transformer is actually a static machine useful for transforming power from a single circuit to a different without changing frequency. This can be a very basic concept of transformer. As there is no rotating or moving part so transformer can be a static device. Transformer runs using ac supply. Transformer works around the principle of mutual induction.
If we should know the history of transformer we now have return long from the 1880s. Around fifty years before that in 1830 property of induction which is the working principle of transformer was discovered. Later the transformer design was improved contributing to more efficiency and lesser size. Gradually the larger capacity of electrical transformers in all the different several KVA, MVA came into existence. During 1950, 400KV electrical power transformer was introduced in high voltage electrical power system. During the early 1970s, unit rating as large as 1100 MVA was produced and 800KV and also higher KV class transformers were created in year of 1980.
Generation of electrical power in low voltage level is extremely much economical. Theoretically, this low voltage level power can be transmitted to the receiving end. This low voltage power if transmitted contributes to greater line current which indeed causes more line lossesBut if the voltage amount of an electrical is increased, the present of your power is reduced which causes lowering of ohmic or I2R losses from the system, lowering of cross sectional part of the conductor i.e. decline in capital value of the device and it also enhances the voltage regulation of the machine. Due to these, low level power must be stepped up for efficient electrical power transmission. This can be done by step up transformer on the sending side of the power system network. Because this high voltage power may not be given to the consumers directly, this needs to be stepped as a result of the specified level with the receiving end with the aid of step down transformer. Electrical power transformer thus plays an important role in power transmission. power system Two winding transformers are typically used where ratio of high voltage and low voltage is higher than 2. It really is affordable to work with auto transformer in which the ratio between high voltage dexjpky57 low voltage is under 2. Again an individual unit three phase transformer is a lot more cost effective compared to a bank of three 500kv power transformer in a three phase system. But a single three phase transformer unit is a bit difficult to transport and have to be taken off service entirely if among the phase winding reduces.
Varieties of Transformer
Transformers might be categorized differently, depending on their purpose, use, construction etc. The types of transformer are the following,
Improve Transformer and Step Down Transformer – Generally employed for stepping all around the voltage measure of power in transmission and distribution power system network.
Three Phase Transformer and Single Phase Transformer – Former is generally found in three phase power system because it is cost effective than later. But when size matters, it is preferable to use a bank of three single phase transformer because it is simpler to transport than a single single three phase transformer unit.
Electrical Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer and Instrument Transformer – Power transformers are generally utilized in transmission network for stepping up or down the voltage level. It operates mainly during high or peak loads and has maximum efficiency at or near full load. Distribution transformer steps on the voltage for distribution purpose to domestic or commercial users. It offers good voltage regulation and operates 24 hrs per day with maximum efficiency at 50% of full load. Instrument transformers include C.T and P.T which are employed to reduce high voltages and current to lesser values that may be measured by conventional instruments.
Two Winding Transformer and Auto Transformer – Former is usually used where ratio between high voltage and low voltage is more than 2. It really is affordable to make use of later in which the ratio between high voltage and low voltage is below 2.
Outdoor Transformer and Indoor Transformer – Transformers that are designed for installing at outdoor are outdoor transformers and transformers created for installing at indoor are furnace transformer cost.
Oil Cooled and Dry Type Transformer – In oil cooled transformer the cooling medium is transformer oil whereas the dry type transformer is air cooled.
Core type, Shell type and Berry type transformer – In core type transformer it offers two vertical legs or limbs with two horizontal sections named yoke. Core is rectangular fit and healthy with a common magnetic circuit. Cylindrical coils (HV and LV) are put for both the limbs.
Shell type transformer: It possesses a central limb as well as 2 outer limbs. Both HV, LV coils are put in the central limb. Double magnetic circuit is found.
Berry type transformer: The core looks like spokes of wheels. Tightly fitted metal sheet tanks can be used as housing this kind of transformer with transformer oil filled inside.